Friends and relatives of Leo Tolstoy – Makovitsky D.P.

Without a keyword MAKOVITSKY Dusan Petrovich (1866-1921) – Slovak friend and associate of L.T., author of the Yasnaya Polyana Notes, doctor of the Tolstoy family and Yasnaya Polyana peasants. He was born in

Without a keyword

MAKOVITSKY Dushan Petrovich (1866 -1921) – Slovak friend and associate of L.T., author of the Yasnaya Polyana Notes, doctor of the Tolstoy family and Yasnaya Polyana peasants. He was born in Slovakia, in the city of Ružomberk, in the family of a wealthy businessman and Slovak patriot. Graduated from the Czech University in Prague.

For the first time he was in Yasnaya Polyana in 1894, but even earlier, in 1890, he became interested in L.T. correspondence. In Yasnaya Polyana, he told L.T. about the oppression of Slovaks, Czechs and other Slavic peoples. He himself translated the Kreutzer Sonata into Slovak and published it in the Instructive Library. The importance of his publishing activity is clearly indicated by the fact that the Slovak translation of the novel Resurrection (1900) published by him is the first obscene foreign translation in general.

Makovitsky developed his activities to an even greater extent in the first years of our century. He personally exported from Russia the latest manuscripts of L.T. for their publication by VG Chertkov in England in the publications of Free Word. The city of Zhilina, where he worked as a doctor, became a stopover for Tolstoyans and Slavists, traveling from Russia to the West and returning from the West to Russia.

In September 1904, the personal doctor T. Dmitry Vasilyevich Nikitin left Yasnaya Polyana, who was mobilized in connection with the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War. Before the family L.T. There was a question about inviting a new doctor. In mid-November 1904, Makovitsky received a call from Sofia Andreevna, which contained a request to come to Yasnaya Polyana as the personal doctor of the Tolstoy family. Upon arrival, he immediately got involved in the daily life and work of L.T. Participated in the preparation of the Reading Circle.

Makovitsky was not inferior to Alexandra Lvovna in devotion to L.T. He did not allow anyone to object to L.T. on any issue, one could only listen to his words. Makovitsky himself led a very strict lifestyle: all his time was spent in labor … His other business, besides medical assistance to the peasants, was keeping detailed records of everything that he saw and heard in Yasnaya Polyana – first of all, of course, the words of L .T. He managed to write down these words in some imperceptible way in his pocket, where he always kept a pencil and pieces of thick cardboard for this purpose. In this way, the most extensive “Yasnopolyansky Notes” by Makovitsky were created, the most detailed and truthful chronicle of Yasnaya Polyana life during the 6 years of the Slovak friend’s stay near L.T. – from December 18, 1904 to November 28, 1910

Later, all these notes had to be translated from the “Dushanovsky” language (a mixture of Russian and Slovak) into Russian – a deed selflessly performed at the request of Makovitsky himself by N.N. Gusev.

Makovitsky paid much attention to the national liberation movement of the West Slavic peoples. Back in 1890, he showed L.T. His article “Christianity and Patriotism”, about which Makovitsky and L.T. Disagreements arose. Makovitsky believed that the rejection of patriotism, in the case of inhibition of the Western and southern Slavs, does not correspond to their needs. Tolstoy insisted that patriotism has its excuse only in the past.

In the diaries of L.T., especially in the last years of life, the name Makovitsky is constantly mentioned. 1910: September 10: “I got up early … I went with Dushan a little on horseback …”; September 26: “I slept badly … Getting up, I outweighed portraits in places … I went on horseback with Dushan …”, etc. In turn, Makovitsky, in his diary of December 31, 1909, recorded the words of L.N.: “I love to read the essays aloud, about which I want to make an idea of ​​what impression they make on others. I’m moving to the listeners, I notice whether it is clear to them if they are being watched, if they are bored. ”

And in the last years of life L.T. Makovitsky made every effort to meet L.T. With the problems of Western and southern Slavs. If L.T. He received a greeting from some Slavic congress or association, then Makovitsky zealously made sure that L.T. Correspondingly, he responded to the greeting. With the advent of Makovitsky, Yasnaya Polyana became a tribune of Slovakov, Chekhov, Poles and other Slavs.

In October-November 1910, Makovitsky accompanied L.T. When leaving Yasnaya Polyana. He looked after, forgetting to sleep and eat, for patients L.T. In Astanov, he was present at his death. Lev Nikolaevich, moisten your mouth! – This is when serving the dying L.T. A glass with drink. They say that this proposal is the call of Makovitsky was the last sound, which L.T.

After the death of L.T. Makovitsky remains in Yasnaya Polyana and still treats peasants. In 1914, he participated in the appeal of like -minded L.T. Against the war, he has been in prison for more than a year, he is experiencing with his accomplices his “crime” a triumph of justification in the Moscow Military Court of Court.