The history of hockey with washer-Go-Sport

First hockey match at the Olympics

We tell the story of the occurrence of hockey with a puck in an article by Go-Sport sports portal

The history of hockey

First hockey match at the Olympics

Hockey match at the first Winter Olympic Games in 1924

Modern hockey originated in Canada in the second half of the 18th century. There is no accurate information about what is the prototype of the game, but there are three versions of how hockey appeared in Canada.

According to one of them, the French brought hockey to the country. France was a colonialist in Canada from the middle of the XVI to the middle of the 18th century. The word hockey was formed from the French word Hoquet (hoca), which designated a curved shepherd staff. With the help of him, the French peasants competed in a game similar to hockey.

According to another version, the British brought hockey to North America. In 1763, after the end of the Seven Years War, Canada passed from France to the UK.

The seven -year war is one of the largest military conflicts of the XVIII century, in which all European countries participated. The battles took place not only in the European territories of states, but also in colonies belonging to large powers. Military clashes took place in Europe, North America, South America, Africa and India.

In the XVIII century, hockey on the grass was popular in England. British colonialists brought him to Canada, but because of the harsh climate, playing hockey steel on ice.

According to the third version, hockey originated in North America. In competitions similar to hockey matches, the Indians who inhabited Canada participated. The team that lost in the competition was subjected to physical punishment. Because of this, the game was called “Hogi”, which is translated from the language of the Mogican tribe of Mohoka means “pain”.

Hockey development in Canada in the 19th century

In the second half of the 19th century, hockey gained popularity in Canada. In the 1870s, the games were held at sports holidays. This entertainment has become especially common among students. Almost every Canadian University had a hockey team. The date of the first hockey match is considered March 3, 1875. On that day, two teams of McGill University met Montreal, and the local newspaper Montreal Gazette wrote about the game.

One of the first hockey matches in history

Hockey match between student teams of the University of McGill in Montreal

Then there was no single set of hockey rules. The lover of the game U.F. Robertson decided to compose them. He introduced several key changes to the rules. The main one was that Robertson offered to play not wooden, as before, but a rubber puck. In 1886, the rules were improved and first printed. The main change was the reduction in the number of players – from nine to seven.

In the late 1880s, the teams consisted of a goalkeeper, front and rear defenders, central and two extreme attackers, as well as a rover. Rover was the strongest player of the team. Everyone except him played in certain areas, and he moved throughout the site.An important difference between hockey of those times was the lack of substitutions in matches. Only the player who received injury with the permission of the rivals could be changed.

The transition from amateur hockey to professional

In 1885, the first amateur hockey league was founded in Montreal. Similar tournaments began to appear in the largest cities of Canada (Ottava, Toronto, Edmonton) and in the provinces. Amateur tournaments gained popularity, the teams had fans.

An important role in the development of hockey was played by Governor-General of Canada Lord Frederick Arthur Stanley. He wanted to make a single trophy that would be awarded the strongest hockey team of Canada. In 1892, he established the main hockey trophy of the country – the hockey call cup. The strongest lovers of Canada fought for the cup. Any team could challenge the current owner of the trophy, and he had to accept it. After the death of the Governor General, the prize was named in his honor-Stanley's Cup.

Frederick Arthur Stanley and the Stanley Cup bowl

Photo by Frederick Arthur Stanley and a bowl installed on the cylindrical base of the Stanley Cup, photo:

In the early 1900s, professional teams began to form in Canada. Professional hockey players continued to combine hockey with another work, but already received money for victories. Then the next changes took place in hockey rules, after which hockey became like a modern one:

  • At the gate began to pull on the net.
  • Judges began to use a whistle to indicate the stop of the game.
  • There was a booking.
  • A standard size of sites was installed close to modern: 56 meters in length and 26 in width.
  • To increase the entertainment of the game, it was allowed to change hockey players during the match.

The level of professional teams quickly grew, and in 1908 the Stanley Cup began to be awarded only to professionals. At that time, Canada had two largest professional championships – the National Hockey Association (NHA) and the Pacific Hockey Association (THA). In 1917, the NH was transformed into the National Hockey League (NHL). The winners of the NHL and Tha played the Stanley Cup among themselves. In 1926, the NHL began to pay players large salaries and lured the best players in Tha, bankrupt the league-competing. Since 1927, the Stanley Cup became the main prize of the NHL.

Table of changes in hockey rules in the XX century

Year Change
1929 Goalkeepers began to use goalkeeper masks
1934 Bullite appears
1936 The concept of offside appears
1945 Outside the gates, they began to install multi -colored lights that recorded the capture of the gate: the red lantern denoted a goal, green – the lack of a goal
1946 The unified standard of referee gestures has been introduced
1969 Power techniques are allowed to be used along the entire length of the site
1998 The abolition of the Red Line rule in Europe
2005 The abolition of the Red Line rule in the NHL

According to the Red Line rule, the hockey player could not graze from his zone a partner located between the red line and the blue line of the opponent zone. With such a PACE, a car was fixed.

The origin of hockey in the USSR

The first friendly hockey matches in the USSR took place in 1932. They were attended by the team of the German workers' union Fichte and the Soviet bandy teams. Despite the fact that the Soviet clubs won, Canadian hockey did not take root in the Union and did not develop in the pre-war period.

In the 1930s, hockey was gaining popularity in Europe and was one of the main sports at the Winter Olympics. In 1945, the resolution of the Chairman of the Committee for Physical Culture and Sports of the USSR Nikolai Romanov appeared, according to which the development of ice hockey became one of the priorities in the sports policy of the USSR. The first national championship in ice hockey took place in 1946, the first champion was Dynamo Moscow.

Dynamo (Moscow) - the first champion of the USSR in hockey

Dynamo (Moscow) – the first champion of the USSR in ice hockey

In the early years, hockey in the USSR developed slowly. The players did not have enough technical equipment, many did not know how to lift the puck from the ice. There was no unified equipment system for the players, some hockey players performed in ammunition from bandy, some without shields. The platforms did not install bumpers – they were replaced by loose plywood fences. This affected the low pace of development of the game. It took nine years to prepare a competitive team.

For the first time at the World Championships, the USSR national team performed in 1954 and immediately won.

Gradually, hockey became one of the most popular sports in the country, and the USSR national team became one of the strongest on the planet.