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Winged hussars. The pride of Poland ⁠

Venimus, Vidimus, Deus Vicit

– Jan Sobieski

Pozdrowienia dla wszystkich miłośników Historii! Today we will talk about the “winged hussars” – one of the most famous and elite units of the Army of the Commonwealth. In general, a lot is known about them, but I will try to tell about hussars all the most interesting. On the Internet, in particular in historical publics, there are many jokes on the topic “Winged hussar = rooster”. So, I’ll say right away that I am not going to Rofli over them, since the topic of development of hussarism in Poland, the heyday of this truly great military art is very interesting and somehow I don’t even want to laugh at them.

Honestly, when I am fond of some topic, then straight hands itch to write about this Long. So it was with Schmeiser, and with the Fleet of England, and now. If you want to know more about “flying Poles”, then welcome to my article …

How did it all start

Winged hussars. The pride of Poland Cat_cat, History, Long Poest, War, Poland, Hussars, Winged Hussars

Delhi. (I Turchi. Codex vindobonensis 8626), 1590. Apparently from Delhi, the existence of winged hussars in Poland began the existence of

Translated from the Turkish Delhi means “brave, crazy, desperate, decisive” – in a word of a groove. Delhi existed in the Ottoman Empire as cavalry units from the end of the XV century to the XVI century. It is believed that it was Delhi that borrowed their appearance “winged hussars”, the heroes of our article. Damn, Tadeusz, well, just do not write off, please. Okay, Mahmoud, good.

Actually, Delhi first appeared just like a retinue among rich Ottomans: officials, military leaders, rulers of regions. Basically, Delhi were recruited not from the Turks themselves, but from the Balkan nations, such as Bosnians, Croats and Serbs. Most of these warriors were turned into Islam, who is forcibly, and who, of their own free will.

The first military leader, who created a large corps of Delhi, was Gazi-Husrev-Pasha. To the battle of Mohach on August 29, 1526, he brought 10,000 Delhi, this subsequently forced other governors and commanders of Ottomans to imitate Pasha. The battle laid an end to the independence of Hungary and marked the beginning of the Ottomans of the Danube countries. About 40-45 thousand people participated in the battle on both sides.The Turks won this battle and inflicted a crushing defeat of the United Hungarians of the Hungarly. The last king of the Czech Republic and Hungary Louis II died in the battle, and the United Balkan army lost about 15,000 people. The Ottomans lost one and a half thousand warriors.

Winged hussars. The pride of Poland Cat_cat, History, Long Poest, War, Poland, Hussars, Winged Hussars

Mohach Battle. Artist – Bertalan Shekeli. Ludovik II

Winged hussars. The pride of Poland Cat_cat, History, Long Poest, War, Poland, Hussars, Winged Hussars

Delhi in battles always showed remarkable courage, courage. They were the first to rush into battle, and even though they were considered a light cavalry, after their attack, the enemy’s infantry was difficult to recover from a blow. In addition to the Osman-Hungarian wars, Delhi were noticed in participation in the campaign against Austria.

Delhi served the state remarkably in the XV-XVII centuries, but after that something happened to be expected. They became unorganized and began to engage in robbery. In principle, it was a natural process: after all, Delhi served from the vizier and the governor, and after the expiration of the term they were removed from his post. In fact, after that Delhi remained unemployed, but it was not very difficult to get a soldier to the soldier of a light armed cavalry, Delhi were in demand everywhere. But, it was only in the 16th-XVII centuries, when the cavalry was still indispensable. In the following centuries, artillery begins to shift the horsemen, and therefore many divisions are left without work. This factor is even more enhanced by the adopted decree of Suleiman II at the very end of the 17th century. It limits the number of divisions in the retinue and sultans. Here begins the beginning of this robber activity. Delhi begin to rob villages and cities, looking for at least some earnings. At least somehow they needed to survive, damn it. In general, the sultans did not organize any measures to capture the divisions, so this robbery can even be considered legal. So, at the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries, Delhi almost finish their official service for the good of the country. There is a decline for light, and what a sin to hide, heavy cavalry.

The last time these guys said loudly about themselves, “shooting” in the Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829-150 years after the events described above. Delhi reminded of themselves and forced their ancestors from the distant even then the 16th century to be proud of themselves. With the siege of Kars in 1828, they showed themselves especially well, attacking the Russian infantry. They even managed to break the construction of Russian troops and capture two guns, but the battle was still lost by the Ottomans. This episode from the Russo-Turkish war colorfully described the British lieutenant of the Navy Adolfus Slade. He watched the battle and the whole war from the Turkish side, he was delighted with courage and courage Delhi. Apparently, England and other European countries, not exposed to the influence of the Ottoman Empire, was not familiar with the terrible shock force of the Turkish elite cavalry during its heyday.

Delhi repulsed them in an excellent style, pursued them on their lines, broke the square of the infantry, chopped them with sabers and took two guns and four caisson.

The Russians got victory – could it be otherwise? – But the glory in the battle went to Delhi, who for the second time during the month broke the enemy system; The fact that shows that the Russian infantry is not as good as it is praised.

– British lieutenant Sir Adolfus Slaid

Winged hussars. The pride of Poland Cat_cat, History, Long Poest, War, Poland, Hussars, Winged Hussars

Delhi in the engraving of Nicola Nicola during the heyday of the cavalry, 1579

Officially and finally Delhi were disbanded by the Turkish Sultan Mahmoud II in the first decade after the Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829. Then the Ottoman cavalrymen in the amount of about 2000 people tried to return to their past lifestyle – robbery and robbery. However, Mahmoud II decided to forever reform his army and abolish the division of Delhi, and those who were not obeyed were defeated by the governor of the Turkish province of Karaman in the south of the empire. The survivors fled to Egypt and Syria – this is how the story of the Turkish light cavalry – Delhi ended.

Winged hussars. The pride of Poland Cat_cat, History, Long Poest, War, Poland, Hussars, Winged Hussars

Turkish Delhi. By the way, instead of armor, Delhi often used skins of killed animals

The occurrence of hussarism in Europe

So I am very interested in knowing what associations you have in my head with the word hussar? For example, I have a hussar immediately associated with some kind of quick movement, a sudden attack that begins with lightning speed and also ends. Hussars are also associated with the Patriotic War of 1812 and the Crimean War of 1853-1856.

You can write how you presented the hussar before you read this article, and we are moving directly to Poland and its pride, the color of hussarism to those distant XV-XVI centuries-“winged hussars”. Go!

Winged hussars. The pride of Poland Cat_cat, History, Long Poest, War, Poland, Hussars, Winged Hussars

The armor of the winged hussar in ¾, that is, with the protection of the hips and knees. Looking at this photo, you can understand how a person looked in such a vestments. It seems, on the one hand, you look, what kind of absurdity, and on the other, when a whole big detachment of such hussar rushes on you in battle, it becomes no longer funny, but scary, and even very

Hussars do not appear in Russia, as many people think, and not even in Poland, where it develops so well, and in Hungary in 1458 with Matyash (Matvey) Corvina. His famous Black Army included a hussar. It all started with the fact that Constantinople fell (right now we will cry). After that, the Sultan Mehmed II decided to continue his conquering foreign policy. He followed the famous Turkic legend, according to which the Sultan will become the greatest and powerful only after he gains a symbol of power – the legendary Kyzyl Elma – a golden apple. Mehmed received one apple, having conquered Constantinople, the rest waited for him in Buda (modern Budapest), Rome, Cologne and Vienna. The Turks thought that the Hungarians would be easy prey for them, and it would not be difficult to get another “golden apple” to the Sultan. Indeed, then the King of Ladislav was hostage by Emperor of Germany, and all the nobility and nobility were mired in civil strife.The Ottomans, of course, thought correctly, however, they did not take into account one point: the governor of Transylvania, Janos Hunyadi, father of Matthias Corvin, survived after the battle of Varna in 1444. Even the King of Hungary, Vladislav Varnenchik, died in that battle.

Winged hussars. The pride of Poland Cat_cat, History, Long Poest, War, Poland, Hussars, Winged Hussars

Jan Matejko. Battle of Varna

So, the Ottomans are going on a new campaign and go to smash the Hungarians. They take the Belgrade castle under siege and start the assault. Janos at this time is in Hungary and collects the militia – they take away all the peasants indiscriminately, everyone is armed with what they can. The fortress has a good, triple line of defense and this gives it the opportunity to hold out until Janos approaches. A sudden attack by peasants with pitchforks and axes frightens the warlike Turks and they flee. Belgrade is saved, the sultan barely keeps himself from committing suicide, and the victor, János.. dies of the plague in a couple of weeks! Do not forget, oh do not forget, friends, that we have the middle of the 15th century in our yard, and the plague can overtake everyone – ask Seryozha Vetrov, he knows.

After such a defeat, the sultan decided for a while to lag behind the Hungarians and move on to more important domestic affairs of state. But the son of Janos decided to take on the heavy burden of the king of Hungary and begin to form the Hungarian army.

Corwin, almost most of all, wanted to finally put an end to all these feudal showdowns of barons and nobles in Hungary, and therefore he turned to the Czech king Jiri from Podebrad for help. Jiri lent Matthias 500 knights (or so), and he defeated the united army of the barons.

After that, Corwin decided to still move on to creating his own army. He was very much fascinated by the tactics of warfare by poorly trained peasants – anger was their main driving force. But after all, no one dared to resist the cavalry in an open field. Here the young Hungarian king creates a very interesting building, the so-called war cart – Wagenburg. Such wagons worked in a very cunning way. When the army went out to fight, several carts were fastened with chains and stood up across the entire width of the field. The side facing the enemy was covered with shields and arquebuses or muskets were placed, which, by the way, had just begun to develop. In addition, archers or crossbowmen always stood behind, they supplemented the firing from cannons with a hail of arrows. It was very difficult, almost impossible, to take such a combat cart. Most often, the enemy began to retreat. Here the Wagenburgs disengaged and the entire army of the Hungarian king ran out of them in a stream.

The new Hungarian army fought well. In the 1460s, after a difficult war with Silesia, half of Bohemia fell under the rule of Corvinus. In general, this was a rather risky act, since all the countries of the Balkans and southern Europe were already on the verge of enslavement by the Ottomans. And then some Hungarian king increases his kingdom and believes in the idea of ​​a single Danubian monarchy – a union of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Bosnia and Croatia. If you remember the bad, Mehmed II has returned to you.Attacking Europe again, he wanted to deal with the Bosnia and Hungary once and for all, and if he really conquered the Bosnians in 1463, then the malicious Corvin took and showed him the cuckoo from around the corner. In response, with the support of Venice, the Hungarian army suddenly moved march south. The time was chosen perfectly – the main Turkish forces just went home. Near the grades, the detachments were divided into two parts, which on both sides approached the fortress of the egg. The Ottomans bravely defended the city, but surrendered to Christmas. The conqueror of Byzantium Mehmed recognized his defeat and gave the egg with the adjacent areas of the Hungarians. It was a victory. The Hungarians managed to win another victory after the signing of this world – on the bread field, the hero of folk tales and legends Pavel Kinizhi defeated the Ottoman army, exceeding the Hungarians in terms of the number of posts of IV 2 times – 15,000 VS 23,000. This finally repelled the desire to attack naughty Hungarians.